Milton Bradley & Co., 1870
Victoria & Albert Museum
The images in the series only slightly differ from one another to give the illusion of motion as the drum is spinning. This type of animation relies on the same optical principles as flipbook animation. Images when seen in rapid succession are registered in the eye as a single image which is moving. After all, that’s the core of cinema.
In 1877, Emile Reynaund patented the Praxinoscope which worked in much the same way as a zoetrope except that the images were viewed by looking in a mirror. The addition of the mirror made the animation appear to be smoother.